Welcome to IVF
Welcome to IVF
Welcome to IVF
Karyotyping in haematological malignancies
Several specific rearrangements occur in the chromosomes in different types of leukemia like CML, CLL, AML, ALL, MPD and MDS. The treatment varies in certain abnormalities. Hence karyotyping is essential to find out the type of abnormality present in individual cases. A bone marrow sample (which has actively dividing cells) is aspirated from the patient and cultured under various conditions to obtain chromosomes. These are G-banded and analyzed for aneuploidy, translocations, deletions and other abnormalities. Multiple cultures are set up, as the abnormality may not be detected in all cultures.  Acquired chromosome abnormalities are occasionally seen in only a few poor quality cells, hence detailed analysis is carried out. However, subtle translocations can never be ruled out by karyotyping and FISH is preferable if the probes are available.

A bone marrow karyotype of a patient with CLL (chronic lymphocytic leukemia) showing various chromosome abnormalities.

Sample :
The latest WBC count should be sent along with the sample. The quantity of bone-marrow required is inversely proportional to the WBC count. For example, 1.5 – 2ml bone-marrow in a sodium heparin vaccutainer is required for a normal WBC count. If the WBC count is low, proportionately more bone-marrow should be sent, if possible. The sample should be transported at room temperature.